In the spirit of a previous posting of his to the *Foundations of Mathematics* list that I quoted before in this blog, Timothy Chow has posted a nice observation, this time indicating how the truth of some widely believed statements about computational classes could actually lead to their *unprovability *in certain formal systems, via the identification of fast growing functions. I quote his message below:

From:Timothy Y. ChowHere is a simple observation which is probably not new, but which I have not seen explicitly written down anywhere. Thanks to Andreas Blass for sanity-checking the argument.

Recall that is the non-uniform analogue of : It is the class of Boolean functions computable by polynomial-size Boolean circuits. It is widely believed that

is not contained in .

Conjecture is a somewhat stronger conjecture than , but weaker than the conjecture that the polynomial hierarchy does not collapse.

Suppose that is indeed true, but only “barely true,” i.e., there exists some function that is just barely superpolynomial, such that there exist Boolean circuits of size that correctly solve an -complete problem. Then the promised “simple observation” is that is then unprovable.

To see this, fix some way of encoding instances. Let be the smallest integer such that no Boolean circuit with inputs and gates correctly solves every instance of (of the appropriate size). If there is no such then is undefined. Then asserts that is total.

The point is that if is barely true, then grows very fast. As Andreas puts it, because the left side is enough gates to solve -sized instances of while the right side isn’t. Then for (and therefore also for not of this form with just a

minor change in the estimates) . Now if is just barely superpolynomial, then the exponent here, , must be just barely above constant, and so grows very fast. If it grows fast enough then your favorite formal system won’t be able to prove that it is total.Tim

It turns out that Chow’s observation had been done before, in “On the independence of versus ,” by Ben-David and Halevi, a technical report from 1991 available here as of this writing.

Let denote , augmented with all true statements. In their report, Ben-David and Halevi prove:

**Theorem.** if and only if there some such that the function of the Wainer hierarchy dominates the approximation rate of to .

Here, the approximation rate is defined by fixing a (canonical) enumeration of the class , say , and setting . This function only depends superficially on the specific enumeration being considered, and it is a total function under the assumption that is not in .

Scott Aaronson has a survey on the question of logical independence of “,”** Is Versus Formally Independent?**, Bulletin of the EATCS

**81**, October 2003, as of this writing available at his website. Aaronson’s survey is not really aimed at logicians, but it is self contained and nicely written.